The use of sexual violence in armed conflict and post-conflict situations is one of the worst global protection challenges due to its scale, prevalence and profound impact. The widespread use of sexual violence in conflicts such as in Rwanda, the Former Yugoslavia, and Sierra Leone led to the adoption of Security Council Resolution 1820 in 2008. The Council recognised that the deliberate use of sexual violence as a tactic of war exacerbates situations of armed conflict, impeding peace and reconciliation. Subsequent resolutions, 1888, 1960, 2106 and 2242 established the Conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) framework to combat the use of CRSV through prevention, coordinated response, and accountability within the broader framework of Women, Peace and Security.
The UN Security Council has specifically mandated UN peacekeeping operations, (e.g. MINUSCA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, UNAMID, UNMISS and UNOCI) to address CRSV. Along with other mission substantive entities, the UN military component is responsible to proactively prevent, deter perpetrators, protect civilians, especially women and children, and neutralise potential, impending and on-going CRSV threats. To facilitate peacekeepers in carrying out these mandated tasks, the UN-CRSV Specialized Training Materials (STM) package have been developed. These materials familiarise peacekeepers with the concept of CRSV, clarify roles and responsibilities, and equip them with tools to proactively address CRSV in their operational environment.
Over 2010-2012, the Departments of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and UN Women, on behalf of UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict (UN Action) developed Scenario-Based Training Modules to address Conflict-Related Sexual Violence (SBT-CRSV) to be used in the pre-deployment training by Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs) which was considered as module 5 of the 2012 POC Specialized Training Materials (STM). These materials were developed based on the Analytical Inventory of Peacekeeping Practice – Addressing Conflict-related Sexual Violence, which was released by UN Women and DPKO on behalf of UN Action in 2008.
These modules named “Presentation on the Implementation of the Analytical Inventory of Peacekeeping Practice for addressing Conflict-Related Sexual Violence” comprised two modules for Strategic and Tactical levels and Scenarios-based Exercises for three UN missions: MONUSCO, MINUSTAH and ONUCI which have a clear mandate on POC including addressing Conflict-related Sexual Violence.
Over 2013, DPKO/OMA developed draft Guidelines for Military Components on the Protection of Civilians. Conflict-related Sexual Violence (CRSV) has been integrated throughout.
These CRSV materials have now been updated by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the Department of Field Support (DPKO-DFS) in collaboration with the Office of the Special Representative of Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (OSRSG-SVC); the UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict (UNA); the Office of the High Commissioner for human Rights (OHCHR), UN Women and the Office of Legal Affairs (OLA). The main goal is to reflect the Guidelines for Military Components on the Protection of Civilians, and ensure that one set of materials are available as a stand-alone Specialised Training Materials on CRSV for all TCCs. The revised materials take into account the changing operational environments into which military peacekeepers are deployed and incorporate new guidance from DPKO-DFS Headquarters. In addition, scenarios have been developed to address CRSV in four additional countries with peacekeeping missions, namely the Central African Republic, Mali, Darfur-Sudan and South Sudan. The previous CSRV-STM developed by ITS/DPKO-DFS in 2012 has Scenario-based exercises for three UN peacekeeping missions, namely MINUSTAH, MONUSCO and ONUCI.